Slowly but surely, the car market turns to a cheaper and more environmentally friendly form of energy - electricity. Now electric cars make the majority of known automobile brands: BMW, Honda, Nissan, Tesla Motors, Toyota and others. The news is full of information about the structure and features of these machines. But there is not much information about their "charging".
Many believe that charging a car with an electric motor is a troublesome and long-term business. Immediately comes the idea that the machine will be "tied" to the outlet at a time when you urgently need to go somewhere.
Today there are such basic modes of charging an electric vehicle:
Mode 1 - the easiest way to "charge". The alternating current is used from the usual electrical network by inserting it into a standard cable outlet without additional protective elements. This method is the most primitive and slightly outdated. In modern electric cars it is not used because of the risk of overheating of the cable or the outlet, as well as a short circuit. On charging a standard car with an electric motor in 20-25 kWh will take from 6 to 8 hours.
Mode 2 - Advanced Mode 1, using a secure cable. Thus, the probability of a short circuit or overheating disappears.
Mode 3 - modern AC charging with increased power. The whole process needs a separate outlet, which, in fact, is a special charging station. The socket is equipped with high-tech protection and is able to monitor the charging process. The car is connected via a built-in cable to the corresponding electric vehicle connector. Depending on the type of cable, charging will be from 7.2 to 43 kW. Charging the electric car will take from 1 to 4 hours.
Mode 4 - the fastest way to charge the electric car. Unlike previous versions, this type uses direct current. For example, the widespread Japanese type of charging stations CHAdeMO gives up to 62.5 kW of energy, which allows you to charge the battery of a standard electric car for 20-30 minutes. A similar method is used by Tesla Motors, its charging stations give out 135 kW. A distinctive feature of this type of charging is that the first 80% of electricity is supplied to the battery very quickly, the remaining 20% - slowly. This is done in order to extend the life of the battery.
A separate way of charging the electric car is a system of "charging" with the help of solar panels. At the moment, such stations are popular in the US and Japan. The system is very simple: refueling resembles an ordinary parking space near which the solar battery is located. The station is installed anywhere in just a couple of minutes, does not require any construction work on the ground, connection to the power grid and building permits.
Charging of electric vehicles in Europe and the USA
European officials are doing their best to encourage their citizens to transfer to a more environmentally friendly and economical mode of transport - electric vehicles. As for gas stations, the experience of Amsterdam is interesting, the authorities of which were guided by the principle "where there are no electric cars - no refueling is needed, but where there are no gas stations - there are no cars there." Now every citizen of the city has the right to send an online request to install a charging station. The focus in the EU countries and the US is on "quick" type refueling.
So, in Germany, which is considered the European leader in the development of infrastructure for electric vehicles, have made a network of free "quick refills" for electric vehicles. In Berlin, such installations are more than 100, many of them are located in the most convenient places for residents - on the parking lots near shopping centers and near supermarkets. We note that there are no queues for these gas stations, which means that there are enough gas stations for everyone. In addition to free electric stations, there are also paid ones, the cost of which is about € 0.25 per kWh.
In the UK, the situation is similar. The country also has a network of free parking lots-recharging. In London itself, there are more than 300 charging stations for electric vehicles. A distinctive feature of this country is that most residents buy a subscription for using the services of electric stations. For the year of using the owner of an electric car will have to pay only € 100.
A couple of years ago, Volvo, Ericsson, Göteborg Energi and Viktoria Institute created in Europe a joint project for the introduction of "intellectual infrastructure for electric vehicles." He suggests the following: any electric car owner can in advance by mobile contact the energy company to agree on the tariff, the amount of the required level of charge, the place and time of refueling. This service is chargeable, but it allows the Europeans to rationally use energy resources.
In the USA, the network of electric stations from Tesla - Superchargers is actively developing now. Ilon Mask announced that charging at his stations is completely free, and also saves time for car owners (the time of full charge is 75 minutes). It is worth noting that only models with a battery of 85 kW / h and 60 kW / h with the Supercharging module installed can charge from supercharging.
This option costs $ 2000, if you immediately declare it when ordering a car. If you are lucky enough to be the owner of the Tesla Model S 60 kW / h without the Supercharging module, its installation will cost $ 2500. In North America, there are now about 250 gas stations Ilon Mask, and in Europe - 200.